Elasticity economics Wikipedia

This way, one can measure the change in aggregate product demand with respect to price changes. A product shall be termed as elastic if its demand varies more than the proportional amount of change in its price. For example, changes in the prices of supply or demand, or changes in demand to changes in income. Examples of elastic goods are clothing and electronics; inelastic goods include items like prescribed drugs, food. It is used to measure the change in quantity demanded of goods or services when compared to the price movements of those goods and services. Price elasticity is a measure of how consumers react to the prices of products and services.

In the long term, consumers are more elastic over longer periods, as over the long term after a price increase of a good, they will find acceptable and less costly substitutes. Elasticity is an important economic measure, particularly for sellers of goods or services, because the reflects how much of a good or service buyers will consume when the price increases or decreases. In some cases the discrete (non-infinitesimal) arc elasticity is used instead.

Rigidity Modulus

The paper concluded that, in general, overestimating student abilities, while inaccurate, increased overall student success. If we need to stretch a wire, we have to do work against its inter atomic forces, which is stored in the form of elastic potential energy. The strain under longitudinal stress is called longitudinal strain. When longitudinal stress produced due to an increase in the length of the object is known as tensile stress.

  • The Structured Query Language comprises several different data types that allow it to store different types of information…
  • It is usually represented by the symbol G from the French word glissement although some like to use S from the English word shear instead.
  • It is defined as the responsiveness and sensitivity of a particular product along with the changes in its price.

Aside from taxation, elasticity can also assist in analysing the need for government intervention. Elasticity is also an important concept for enterprises and governments. For enterprises, elasticity is relevant in the calculation of the fluctuation of commodity prices, and its relation to income.

Examples of elasticity in a Sentence

The way to measure it is to take the percentage variation in demanded product quantity and divide it by the other product’s price percentage change. Good use of cross elasticity is to measure the change in demand for coffee to a change in tea price. When an external force is applied to a rigid body there is a change in its length, volume shape. When external forces are removed the body tends to regain its original shape and size. Such a property of a body by virtue of which a body tends to regain its original shape size when external forces are removed is called elasticity.

The price elasticity of demand tends to be low when spending on a good is a small proportion of their available income. Therefore, a change in the price of a good exerts a very little impact on the consumer’s propensity to consume the good. Whereas, when a good represents a large chunk of the consumer’s income, the consumer is said to possess a more elastic demand. If the price of a product is increasing and it has little available substitutes, it is likely that the consumer will still continue to pay this higher price. The fact that the consumer needs the good in the short-run, means that he is likely to continue this action regardless in the long-run.

definition of elasticity

Adding elasticity, softness, and great slip, this conditioner was made for anyone who struggles to get their hair successfully detangled after every wash. Knead for 10 to 15 minutes to develop strength and elasticity in the dough. These potent natural ingredients work together to promote hair strength and elasticity, nourish your scalp, and support hair growth through improving circulation to the scalp. The structure of the play assumes the elasticity of a PowerPoint presentation, scattering focus.


In 1660, Hooke discovered the Law of Elasticity, known as Hooke’s Law through lengthy experimentation with springs. The basic premise of the law is that for relatively small deformations of an object , the displacement or size of the deformation is directly proportional to the deforming force or load. Under these conditions, the object returns to its original shape and size upon removal of the load. To a greater or lesser extent, most solid materials exhibit elastic behavior, but there is a limit to the magnitude of the force and the accompanying deformation within which elastic recovery is possible for any given material. The material’s elastic limit or yield strength is the maximum stress that can arise before the onset of plastic deformation.

  • The price elasticity of demand tends to be low when spending on a good is a small proportion of their available income.
  • If the elasticity of supply is 0.5, quantity rises by .5%; if it is 1, quantity rises by 1%; if it is 2, quantity rises by 2%.
  • The concept of cross elasticity of demand refers to the measurement of a specific quantity’s sensitivity in response to the other product’s price change.
  • Elasticity is a unitless ratio, independent of the type of quantities being varied.

This means that tobacco is inelastic because the change in price will not have a significant influence on the quantity demanded. In business and economics, price elasticity refers to the degree to which individuals, consumers, or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. It is predominantly https://1investing.in/ used to assess the change in consumer demand as a result of a change in a good or service’s price. The elastic limit nearly coincides with the proportional limit for some elastic materials, so that at times the two are not distinguished; whereas for other materials a region of nonproportional elasticity exists between the two.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Elasticity

The elastic behavior of solids can be well explained by Spring Ball Model. Here Atoms are modeled with balls and interatomic forces are represented with springs. If we try to displace a ball from its equilibrium position, then the spring system tries to restore the ball back to its original position. This is why the values of strain for the same stress are different while increasing the load and while decreasing the load.

definition of elasticity

This shows inelasticity of demand, because even if there is a huge increase of a product’s price, there is no reduction of demand. However, if the consumer could not afford the new price of the product, they would likely have to learn to live without it, making the price elastic in the long-run. Income Elasticity of Demand is a measure used to show the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in the consumer income.

A measure of how changes in price affect supply or demand for a given good, equal to the percentage of change in supply or demand divided by the percentage of the price change. There are four types of elasticity of demand mainly as given in the following. The bulk modulus is a property of materials in any phase but it is more common to discuss the bulk modulus for solids than other materials. Gases have a bulk modulus that varies with initial pressure, which makes it more of a subject for thermodynamics — in particular the gas laws.

Elasticity (physics)

The mathematical theory of elasticity and its application to engineering mechanics is concerned with the macroscopic response of the material and not with the underlying mechanism that causes it. Elasticity is an economic term describing the change in the behavior of buyers and sellers in response to a price change for a good or service. However, if the price of caffeine itself were to go up, we would probably see little change in the consumption of coffee or tea because there may be few good substitutes for caffeine. Most people, in this case, might not willingly give up their morning cup of caffeine no matter what the price. We would say, therefore, that caffeine is an inelastic product.

Factors affecting elasticity

If we take salt, even a big fall in demand cannot affect the fall of its appreciable extension in its demand. Similarly, if we observe a slight fall in the prices of oranges, there will be a considerable change in its demand. The elasticity of demand liquid asset examples may be more or less, but it is always perfectly elastic or inelastic. The quantity that describes a material’s response to stresses applied normal to opposite faces is called Young’s modulus in honor of the English scientist Thomas Young (1773–1829).

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